The device of the ponds for growing fish food
For breeding and keeping fish can be used different reservoirs: dug, lined and instream ponds, small reservoirs and lakes, waste peat quarries, ponds and pools. The construction and operation of the reservoir, intended for farming, require compliance with certain rules in accordance with fish and hydraulic requirements. To begin to determine the uses of the water body, i.e., for decorative or plot for growing food fish it is intended. Depending on this will be determined and the device of the reservoir, its size, shape, depth, mode of operation.
The device of the reservoir for the cultivation of food fish is decorative. It has other requirements. In this reservoir, for example, are meaningless indented shore line, complicated bottom topography, the depth at the coast, decorative elements, placing on a bed of special soil. The main attention should be paid to the layout of the bed of the pond, provision of good water supply and the possibility of water discharge. Fish farming will be profitable if managed correctly will be resolved issues of construction and operation of the reservoir. When the device of the pond lot will be determined by the size of land that you can allocate for the pond. On the one hand, this was from the pond in the garden and the pond or group of ponds on the farm with zavolnovalis land area. If the garden area, the pond will be to some extent mainly to satisfy your own needs, the farmer must decide what place is the fish farming in agricultural production. On this basis, is defined and its place in economic activity. This can be a specialized farms where fish farming is the main your occupation, or fish farming will be an integral part of the farm when the pond is used comprehensively. The second direction has a larger development, which is largely due to good compatibility of aquaculture with other sectors of agricultural production. Therefore, in the construction of the pond shall be provided in the integrated use not only for fish production but also for irrigation of gardens and orchards, watering livestock, waterfowl breeding, fire-fighting purposes.
Ponds can be of various types: dug, run-of-river or deboned. Preference should be given to lined ponds, as you can make them bleed. They are convenient in operation and, as a rule, have a higher natural productivity. To build a pond, you need two essential conditions: a suitable site and the availability of water of required quality and quantity. The choice of location for the construction of ponds should be given particular attention. Sometimes it may be that a particular plot of land is particularly suitable for pond and requires a small expenditure, for example when it is either a natural cavity, or a stream flowing over the land with more or less bias. On this site it is possible to arrange not one, but several ponds. With steep gradients get small ponds and deep, their construction requires large volume of earthworks. Suitable place for the construction of the pond is a ravine with sloping sides and a small longitudinal slope, and terrain with a slight slope on which to construct ponds by building dams around their perimeter. When choosing the site along the slope is also of great significance is the nature of the soil. The soil should have low permeability, otherwise there may be excessive loss of water through seepage. Best for construction of ponds are areas of meadow soils and slabovodopronitsaemyh soils — clay and loam. Sandy soils and soils with a high content of gravel is less suitable for the construction of the pond, as the powerful ‘ filter the water, which leads to big losses. However, these soils can be used for the pond, reinforcing dams, slopes and bed with plastic wrap. Top film must be backfilled with soil.
A waterproof bed will be provided in the case, if underlying impermeable layers of soil (clay, loam) deposited over the entire area close to the surface, with a minimum thickness of 0.5 m. to determine the capacity of soils to filter water, you must take several samples of soil at different distances from the surface, place them in a glass jar, pour water and mix thoroughly. After settling, the layers of sand and clay particles visually define their ratio as a percentage and depending on that evaluate the permeability of soil in the proposed construction. If the soils presented clay or loam more than 30 %, it indicates the reliability of the underlying layer. In the sandy loam and sand with a proportion of clay particles does not exceed 10 %. These soils are highly filtered water, and in this case the bed of the pond should be about making the film. The water of the pond is paramount, and it should pay special attention in the selection of a site for pond construction. The quality and quantity of water available for water supply pond, will largely determine the selection of fish for breeding and the technology of its cultivation. Water quality must conform to basic fish requirements. To make the analysis of water quality, i.e. to determine its chemical composition, it is possible for any sanitary-epidemiological station, in agrochemical laboratory or in the laboratory of a nearby fish farm Water should be free from various suspensions, do not have odors, tastes and color. It is unacceptable presence in water of free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, methane and poisonous substances. Special attention to the quantity and quality of water should pay for construction of pond intended for rearing trout. For water ponds you can use a variety of sources: springs, keys, streams, rivers, artesian wells, etc. Water can be gravity fed through channels or pipes, if the pond is below the water source or pump.