Dangerous marine animals
The immeasurable diversity of nature on our planet: scientists consider to 3500 species of mammals and more than 850 000 species of insects. Despite the fact that already for many centuries is explored flora and fauna, and annually published reports of discoveries of new species, which find even in long inhabited and explored areas. So, in the early 30-ies of our century was known to 800 thousand species of butterflies, and by 1942 he already 900 thousand species. Even less studied is the life in the oceans, which often make sensational discoveries.
The existence in the seas and oceans are dangerous animals the people knew even in ancient times, although along with very real views were widespread tales of fantastic sea monsters. It was known about the danger of injections of some animals, on the toxicity of some marine animals by eating them for food and, of course, about large aggressive fish – the shark. Currently published a lot of papers devoted to the description of poisoning from the ingestion of marine animals in different parts of the World ocean. So, only in 50-ies of our century from such poisoning suffered tysjacheletij. According to the researchers, only poisonous fish there are about 500 species, most of which live in the salty waters.
By climatic and geographical basis distinguish polar, Northern, temperate, subtropical and tropical zones. The majority of our population lives in Northern and moderate climatic zones and therefore are not familiar with the fauna and flora of the tropics. Year-round abundance of warmth in them contributes to the rapid development of wildlife. So, in the Amazon region, has about 15 thousand different species of animals.
As reported the scientists, the area of tropical forest area of 3.5 km 2 can grow up to 400 species only tree species and 30 species of epiphytes (vines, etc.). In humid tropical forest on an area of 1 ha 400-700 growing instances of trees belonging to 100 different species. In the tropical regions of America account for up to 50 thousand different species of plants, and in forests of Africa about 130 thousand species of flowering plants only. In Java grows about 1.1 thousand different kinds of trees, in Ceylon – about 1.5 thousand species in the Philippines-up to 10 thousand species of plants, and in the Amazon river basin of up to 2.5 thousand tree species. At the same time in European countries account for only about 36 species of trees, 29 of which are deciduous and 7 coniferous. In Brazil found 500 species of birds, with only the smallest representatives of the bird world – hummingbirds discovered in these parts about 120 species. In the vicinity of the city Belem, in the Amazon river basin, scientists have found 700 species of butterflies. Large and variety of fish in the waters of the tropics. Only in R. the Amazon their home to about 2 thousand species, which is 2 times higher than in the Mediterranean basin.
Naturally, along with the General increase in the species diversity of plants and animals in the tropics is increasing and the number of species that are hazardous to health and life: poisonous plants and animals, poisonous insects, insect vectors of diseases, dangerous and venomous marine fish. In addition, set up the pattern – the poisonous animals and plants increases with proximity to the tropical latitudes. This applies to both sea animals and land.
Features of the tropics are also evident in the existence of a number of infectious diseases that are specific for this climatic zone, in addition, some diseases, and normal for the Northern and temperate zones, occur in the tropics more seriously.
In their places of permanent residence most people, even a purely urban dwellers, and to some extent informed about the dangerous local wildlife: poisonous mushrooms, reptiles, insects that carry dangerous diseases, etc. it is Known that the vast majority of fish found in freshwater reservoirs in our country, do not pose a risk to human health. With the exception of some fish that live in the rivers of Central Asia, as well as fish affected by invasive diseases.
Getting into a completely different habitat conditions, faced with unfamiliar environment, care must be taken when dealing with representatives of flora and fauna: the brightly colored fish of unusual shape may have poisonous thorns; graceful flower – can cause severe burns; this delicious-looking fruit-contain toxic substances that cause severe poisoning; harmless-looking insect can be a carrier of a dangerous disease and so on.
You should also know that the names of a number of tropical fish, tropical plants have no analogues in the Russian language. In addition, the local name for a particular plant or animal may be different depending on the language of the local population, which often complicates obtaining the necessary information.