Black sea for fishing and recreation.

The black sea is an inland sea basin of the Atlantic ocean. The Bosphorus Strait connects Black sea with Marmara, then through the Dardanelles with the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The Kerch Strait connects the Black and Azov seas. North sea cuts deeply into the Crimean Peninsula. On the surface Black sea water passes the border between Europe and Asia Minor. A distinctive feature of the Black sea is complete (except for some anaerobic bacteria) absence of life at depths greater than 150-200 m due to the saturation of deep layers of water with hydrogen sulfide. The continental climate of the Black sea. The black sea coast of Caucasus and the southern coast of the Crimea being protected by mountains from cold Northern winds and have a mild Mediterranean climate and South-East of Tuapse is humid subtropical. A strong influence on weather over the Black sea has the Atlantic ocean, which formed a large part of the cyclones, the sea brings rainy weather and storms. In the North-East coast, especially in the area of Novorossiysk, start low Caucasian ridge is not a barrier to cold North winds. South-westerly winds in the black sea region receives the warm and wet Mediterranean air mass. So for the majority of the Black sea is characterised by warm wet winters and hot dry summers.

The black sea fills izolirovannogo, located between Southeast Europe and Asia Minor. This depression was formed in the Miocene epoch, during an active orogeny that divided the ancient Tethys ocean into several separate water bodies (of which more later, except the Black sea, formed the Azov, Aral and Caspian seas). Black sea depression consists of two parts — Western and Eastern, separated by show, which is a natural extension of the Crimean Peninsula. The North-Western part of the sea shelf is characterized by relatively wide bandwidth (up to 190 km). South coast (owned by Turkey) and Eastern (Georgia) is more steep in nature, the shelf does not exceed 20 km long and indented by a number of canyons and valleys. The depths off the coast of the Crimea and the black sea coast grow extremely quickly, reaching elevations over 500 m to several kilometers from the coastline. Maximum depth (2210 m) reaches the sea in the Central part, South of Yalta.

The flora of the Black sea includes 270 species of multicellular green, brown, red benthic algae (Cystoseira, Phyllophora, zoster, kladofora, Ulva, enteromorpha, etc.). In the composition of phytoplankton in the Black sea — not less than six hundred species. Among them, dinoflagellates — loricate flagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Ceratium furca, small scripsiella Scrippsiella trochoidea, etc.), dinoflagellates (dinophysis, protoperidinium, alexandrium), various diatoms and other. The fauna of the Black sea somewhat poorer than the Mediterranean, there are sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, octopus, cuttlefish, squid, coral. In the Black sea is home to 2500 species of animals (including 500 single-celled species, 160 species of vertebrates — fish, mammals, 500 species of crustaceans, 200 species of mollusks, and the rest invertebrates of various kinds). Among the main reasons for the relative poverty of the animal world of the sea: a wide range of water salinity; moderately cold water, the presence of hydrogen sulfide at greater depths. The black sea is suitable for habitat, species, stages of development which do not require great depths. At the bottom of the Black sea inhabited by mussels, oysters, pecten, and the mollusc-predator Rapana, brought by ships from the Far East. In the crevices of the coastal cliffs and among the rocks is home to many crabs, there are shrimps, there are various kinds of jellyfish (the most common are Aurelia and kornerot), sea anemones, sponges.

Of fish from the Black sea several species of gobies (the goby-Golovach, bull-whip, round goby, the goby martovich, goby Amur sleeper), Azov anchovy, black sea anchovy (anchovy) shark-spiny dogfish, flatfish-Glossa, flounder-Kalkan, a mullet of five species, lofar, hake (hake), sea ruff, barbula (common black sea mullet), haddock, mackerel, horse mackerel, black sea-Azov sea herring, black sea-Azov sea sprat, garfish, sea horse, etc. Meet sturgeon (Beluga, stellate sturgeon, black sea-Azov (Russian) and Atlantic sturgeon). Among the dangerous fishes of the Black sea — the sea dragon as the most dangerous (poisonous spines of the dorsal fin and Gill covers), and a noticeable black sea Scorpion fish, stingrays (sea cat) with poisonous spines on the tail. Among birds, common gulls, petrels, ducks-Pochards, cormorants and several other species. Mammals are represented in Black sea by two species of dolphins: the Dolphin-the bottlenose Dolphin and Bonn conventions, the Azov-black sea common sea pig (often called Azov Dolphin), as well as the white-bellied seal. Some species of animals, inhabiting the Black sea often brought in there through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles by the current or swim on their own.

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